Tuesday, February 2, 2010

CHAPTER 2 – REVIEWING FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

1. List and describe the four major financial statements.

The four basic financial statements are:
1. The balance sheet reports a firm’s assets, liabilities, and equity at a particular point in time.
2. The income statement shows the total revenues that a firm earns and the total expenses the firm incurs to generate those revenues over a specific period of time—generally one year.
3. The statement of cash flows shows the firm’s cash flows over a given period of time. This statement reports the amounts of cash that the firm generated and distributed during a particular time period. The bottom line on the statement of cash flows―the difference between cash sources and uses―equals the change in cash on the firm’s balance sheet from the previous year’s cash account balance.
4. The statement of retained earnings provides additional details about changes in retained earnings during a reporting period. This financial statement reconciles net income earned during a given period and any cash dividends paid within that period on one side with the change in retained earnings between the beginning and ending of the period on the other side.

2. On which of the four major financial statements (balance sheet, income statement, statement of cash flows, or statement of retained earnings) would you find the following items?

a. earnings before taxes - income statement
b. net plant and equipment - balance sheet
c. increase in fixed assets - statement of cash flows
d. gross profits - income statement
e. balance of retained earnings, December 31, 20xx - statement of retained earnings
f. common stock and paid-in surplus - balance sheet
g. net cash flow from investing activities - statement of cash flows
h. accrued wages and taxes - income statement
i. increase in inventory - statement of cash flows

3. What is the difference between current liabilities and long-term debt?

Current liabilities constitute the firm’s obligations due within one year, including accrued wages and taxes, accounts payable, and notes payable. Long-term debt includes long-term loans and bonds with maturities of more than one year.

4. How does the choice of accounting method used to record fixed asset depreciation affect management of the balance sheet?

Firm managers can choose the accounting method they use to record depreciation against their fixed assets. Two choices include the straight-line method and the modified accelerated cost recovery system (MACRS). Companies often calculate depreciation using MACRS when they figure the firm’s taxes and the straight-line method when reporting income to the firm’s stockholders. The MACRS method accelerates deprecation, which results in higher deprecation expenses, lower taxable income, and lower taxes in the early years of a project’s life. The straight-line method results in lower depreciation expenses, but also results in higher taxes in the early years of a project’s life. Firms seeking to lower their cash outflows from tax payments will favor the MACRS depreciation method.

5. What are the costs and benefits of holding liquid securities on a firm’s balance sheet?

The more liquid assets a firm holds, the less likely the firm will be to experience financial distress. However, liquid assets generate no profits for a firm. For example, cash is the most liquid of all assets, but it earns no return for the firm. In contrast, fixed assets are illiquid, but provide the means to generate revenue. Thus, managers must consider the trade-off between the advantages of liquidity on the balance sheet and the disadvantages of having money sit idle rather than generating profits.

6. Why can the book value and market value of a firm differ?

A firm’s balance sheet shows its book (or historical cost) value based on Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). Under GAAP, assets appear on the balance sheet at what the firm paid for them, regardless of what assets might be worth today if the firm were to sell them. Inflation and market forces make many assets worth more now than they were when the firm bought them. So in most cases, book values differ widely from the market values for the same assets—the amount that the assets would fetch if the firm actually sold them. For the firm’s current assets—those that mature within a year―the book value and market value of any particular asset will remain very close. For example, the balance sheet lists cash and marketable securities at their market value. Similarly, firms acquire accounts receivable and inventory and then convert these short-term assets into cash fairly quickly, so these assets’ book value is generally close to their market value.

7. From a firm manager’s or investor’s point of view, which is more important―the book value of a firm or the market value of the firm?

Balance sheet assets are listed at historical cost. Managers would thus see little relation between the total asset value listed on the balance sheet and the current market value of the firm’s assets. Similarly, the stockowners’ equity listed on the balance sheet generally differs from the true market value of the equity—in this case, the market value may be higher or lower than the value listed on the firm’s accounting books. So financial managers and investors often find that balance sheet values are not always the most relevant numbers.

8. What do we mean by a “progressive” tax structure?

The U.S. tax structure is progressive, meaning that the larger the income, the higher the taxes assessed. However, corporate tax rates do not increase in any kind of linear way based on this progressive nature: They rise from a low of 15 percent to a high of 39 percent, then drop to 34 percent, rise to 38 percent, and finally drop to 35 percent.

9 What’s the difference between an average tax rate and a marginal tax rate?

You can figure the average tax rate as the percentage of each dollar of taxable income that the firm pays in taxes. From your economics classes, you can probably guess that the firm’s marginal tax rate is the amount of additional taxes a firm must pay out for every additional dollar of taxable income it earns.

10 How does the payment of interest on debt affect the amount of taxes the firm must pay?

Corporate interest payments appear on the balance sheet as an expense item, so we deduct interest payments from operating income when the firm calculates taxable income. But, any dividends paid by corporations to their shareholders are not tax deductible. This is one factor that encourages managers to finance projects with debt financing rather than to sell more stock. Suppose one firm uses mainly debt financing and another firm, with identical operations, uses mainly equity financing. The equity-financed firm will have very little interest expense to deduct for tax purposes. Thus, it will have higher taxable income and pay more taxes than the debt-financed firm. The debt-financed firm will pay fewer taxes and be able to pay more of its operating income to asset funders, i.e., its bondholders and stockholders. So even stockholders prefer that firms finance assets primarily with debt rather than with stock.

11 The income statement is prepared using GAAP. How does this affect the reported revenue and expense measures listed on the balance sheet?

Company accountants must prepare firm income statements following GAAP principles. GAAP procedures require that the firm recognize revenue at the time of sale, but sometimes the company receives the cash before or after the time of sale. Likewise, GAAP counsels the firm to show production and other expenses on the balance sheet as the sales of those goods take place. So production and other expenses associated with a particular product’s sale only appear on the income statement (for example, cost of goods sold and depreciation) when that product sells. Of course, just as with the revenue recognition, actual cash outflows incurred with production may occur at a very different point in time—usually much earlier than GAAP principles allow the firm to formally recognize the expenses. Further, income statements contain several non-cash entries; the largest of these non-cash entries is depreciation. Depreciation attempts to capture the non-cash expense incurred as fixed assets deteriorate from the time of purchase to the point when those assets must be replaced. Let’s illustrate the effect of depreciation: Suppose a firm purchases a machine for $100,000. The machine has an expected life of five years and at the end of those five years, the machine will have no expected salvage value. The firm lays out a $100,000 cash outflow at the time of purchase. But the entire $100,000 does not appear on the income statement in the year that the firm purchases the machine—in accounting terms, the machine is not expensed in the year of purchase. Rather, if the firm’s accounting department uses the straight-line depreciation method, it deducts only $100,000/5 = $20,000 each year as an expense. This $20,000 equipment expense is not a cash outflow for the firm. The person in charge of buying the machine knows that the cash flow occurred at the time of purchase—and it totaled $100,000 rather than $20,000. So, figures shown on an income statement may not represent the actual cash inflows and outflows for a firm during a particular period.

12 Why do financial managers and investors find cash flow to be more important than accounting profit?

Financial managers and investors are far more interested in actual cash flows than they are in the somewhat artificial, backward-looking accounting profit listed on the income statement. This is a very important distinction between the accounting point of view and the finance point of view. Finance professionals know that the firm needs cash, not accounting profit, to pay the firm’s obligations as they come due, to fund the firm’s operations and growth, and to compensate the firm’s ultimate owners: its shareholders. Thus, the statement of cash flows is a financial statement that shows the firm’s cash flows over a given period of time. This statement reports the amounts of cash that the firm generated and distributed during a particular time period.

13 Which of the following activities result in an increase (decrease) in a firm’s cash?

a. decrease fixed assets – increase in cash
b. decrease accounts payable - decrease in cash
c. pay dividends - decrease in cash
d. sell common stock – increase in cash
e. decrease accounts receivable - increase in cash
f. increase notes payable – increase in cash

14 What is the difference between net cash flow from operating activities, net cash flow from investing activities, and net cash flow from financing activities?

Cash flows from operations are those cash inflows and outflows that result directly from producing and selling the firm’s products. These cash flows include: net income, depreciation, and working capital accounts other than cash and operations-related short-term debt. Cash flows from investing activities are cash flows associated with buying or selling of fixed or other long-term assets. This section of the statement of cash flows shows cash inflows and outflows from long-term investing activities—most significantly the firm’s investment in fixed assets. Cash flows from financing activities are cash flows that result from debt and equity financing transactions. These include raising cash by: Issuing short-term debt, issuing long-tern debt, issuing stock, using cash to pay dividends, using cash to pay off debt, and using cash to buy back stock.

15 What are free cash flows for a firm? What does it mean when a firm’s free cash flow is negative?

Free cash flows are the cash flows available to pay the firm’s stockholders and debtholders after the firm has made the necessary working capital investments, fixed asset investments, and developed the necessary new products to sustain the firm’s ongoing operations. If free cash flow is negative, the firm's operations produce no cash flows available for investors.

16 What is earnings management?

Managers and financial analysts have recognized for years that firms use considerable latitude in using accounting rules to manage their reported earnings in a wide variety of contexts. Indeed, within the GAAP framework, firms can “smooth” earnings. That is, firms often take steps to over or understate earnings at various times. Managers may choose to smooth earnings to show investors that firm assets are growing steadily. Similarly, one firm may be using straight line depreciation for its fixed assets, while another is using a modified accelerated cost recovery method (MACRS), which causes depreciation to accrue quickly. If the firm uses MACRS accounting methods, they write fixed asset values down quickly; assets will thus have lower book value than if the firm used straight line depreciation methods. This process of controlling a firm’s earnings is called earnings management.

17 What does the Sarbanes-Oxley Act require of firm managers?

Sarbanes-Oxley Act, passed in June 2002, requires public companies to ensure that their corporate boards’ audit committees have considerable experience applying generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for financial statements. The Act also requires that any firm’s senior management must sign off on the financial statements of the firm, certifying the statements as accurate and representative of the firm’s financial condition during the period covered. If a firm’s board of directors or senior managers fails to comply with Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX), the firm may be delisted from stock exchanges.

Problems

Basic 2-1 Balance Sheet You are evaluating the balance sheet for Goodman’s Bees Corporation.
Problems From the balance sheet you find the following balances: Cash and marketable securities =
LG1 $400,000, Accounts receivable = $1,200,000, Inventory = $2,100,000, Accrued wages and taxes = $500,000, Accounts payable = $800,000, and Notes payable = $600,000. Calculate Goodman Bee’s net working capital.

net working capital = current assets - current liabilities.

Goodman’s Bees current assets =

Cash and marketable securities-- = $400,000
Accounts receivable------------- = $1,200,000
Inventory----------------------- = $2,100,000
Total current assets ---------------$3,700,000

and current liabilities =

Accrued wages and taxes-------- = $500,000
Accounts payable---------------- = $800,000
Notes payable--------------------= $600,000
Total current liabilities -------------$1,900,000

So the firm’s net working capital was $1,800,000 ($3,700,000 - $1,900,000).

2. Balance Sheet Zoeckler Mowing & Landscaping’s year-end 2009 balance sheet lists current assets of $256,000, fixed assets of $324,000, current liabilities of $245,000, and long-term debt of $185,000. Calculate Zoeckler’s total stockholders’ equity.

Recall the balance sheet identity in Equation 2-1: Assets = Liabilities + Equity. Rearranging this equation: Equity = Assets – Liabilities. Thus, the balance sheets would appear as follows:

Book value ------------------------------------Book value
Assets --------------------------------Liabilities and Equity

Current assets --$ 256,000 -----------Current liabilities--------- $ 245,000
Fixed assets ------324,000 -----------Long-term debt ------------185,000
---------------------------------------Stockholders’ equity ---- 150,000
Total $ 580,000 -------------------- Total --------------------$ 580,000

3. Income Statement Reed’s Birdie Shot, Inc.’s 2008 income statement lists the following income and expenses: EBIT = $538,000, Interest expense = $63,000, and Net income = $435,000. Calculate the 2008 Taxes reported on the income statement.

Using the setup of an Income Statement in Table 2.2:

EBIT ----------------$538,000
Interest expense -------63,000
EBT ------------------475,000
Taxes----------------(40,000)
Net income ----------$435,000

4. Income Statement Reed’s Birdie Shot, Inc.’s 2009 income statement lists the following income and expenses: EBIT = $455,000, Interest expense = $58,000, and Taxes = $138,000. Reed’s has no preferred stock outstanding and 100,000 shares of common stock outstanding. Calculate the 2008 earnings per share.

Using the setup of an Income Statement in Table 2.2:


EBIT ------------------ $455,000
Interest expense............ (58,000)
EBT.................................. 397,000
Taxes ...............................(138,000)
Net income...................... $259,000

Thus,
Earnings per share (EPS) =$259,000/100,000= $2.59 per share

5. Corporate Taxes Oakdale Fashions Inc. had $245,000 in 2008 taxable income. Using the tax schedule in Table 2-3, calculate the company’s 2008 income taxes. What is the average tax rate? What is the marginal tax rate?

From Table 2.3, the $245,000 of taxable income puts Oakdale Fashion in the 39 percent marginal tax bracket. Thus,

Tax liability = Tax on base amount + Tax rate (amount over base):
= $22,250 + .39 ($245,000 - $100,000) = $78,800

Note that the base amount is the maximum dollar value listed in the previous tax bracket. The average tax rate for Oakdale Fashions Inc. comes to:

Average tax rate = $78,800/ $245,000= $78,800/$245,000 = 32.16%

If Oakdale Fashions earned $1 more of taxable income, it would pay 39 cents (its tax rate of 39 percent) more in taxes. Thus, the firm’s marginal tax rate is 39 percent.

6. Corporate Taxes Hunt Taxidermy, Inc. is concerned about the taxes paid by the company in 2008. In addition to $26.5 million of taxable income, the firm received $1,750,000 of interest on state-issued bonds and $600,000 of dividends on common stock it owns in Hunt Taxidermy, Inc. Calculate Hunt Taxidermy’s tax liability, average tax rate, and marginal tax rate.

In this case, interest on the state-issued bonds is not taxable and should not be included in taxable income. Further, the first 70 percent of the dividends received from Hunt Taxidermy is not taxable. Thus, only 30 percent of the dividends received are taxed, so:

Taxable income = $26,500,000 + (.3)$600,000 = $26,680,000

Now Hunt Taxidermy’s tax liability will be:

Tax liability = $6,416,667 + .35 ($26,680,000 - $18,333,333) = $9,338,000

The $600,000 of dividend income increased Hunt Taxidermy’s tax liability by $63,000 (= (.3) x $600,000 x (.35)). Hunt Taxidermy’s resulting average tax rate is now:

Average tax rage = $9,338,000/$26,680,000 = 35.00%

Finally, if Hunt Taxidermy earned $1 more of taxable income, it would still pay 35 cents (based upon its marginal tax rate of 35 percent) more in taxes.

7. Statement of Cash Flows Ramakrishnan Inc. reported 2008 net income of $15 million and depreciation of $2,650,000. The top part of Ramakrishnan, Inc.’s 2007 and 2008 balance sheets is listed below (in millions of dollars).

Net cash flow from operating activities: $4,650,000

8. Statement of Cash Flows In 2008, Usher Sports Shop had cash flows from investing activities of -$2,567,000 and cash flows from financing activities of -$3,459,000. The balance in the firm’s cash account was $950,000 at the beginning of 2008 and $1,025,000 at the end of the year.

Calculate Usher Sports Shop’s cash flow from operations for 2008.

Net change in cash and marketable securities = $1,025,000 - $950,000 = $75,000

Cash Flows from Operating Activities = $6,101,000

Cash Flows from Investing Activities .................... = - 2,567,000
Cash Flows from Financing Activities..................... = - 3,459,000
Net Change in Cash and Marketable Securities.... = $75,000

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